The Lower Class in the urban revolts in the Late Middle Ages

 

Yong-Jin, PARK

 

 

 

1. Introduction

 

Last Conference, 2007, I presented a paper concerning the internal and external solidarity in the urban revolts. I focused on the Revolt of Etienne Marcel, the Jacquerie in 1358, the urban revoltes occurred in the Northern France in early 1380s, and the Cabochiens Revolt in 1413.

Concerning these revolts, a lot of impressive studies have been achieved. They are mainly analyzing the political and financial aspects. This time I present a paper about the same events with the same geographical boundaries, but from the different aspect, that is social status. This paper will bring into question the composition of the participants, especially the lower class, or "menu people". But to identify the composition, this paper proposes a psychological approach, based on the fear and the instable mentality, which cause and trigger the revolts. This approach shows the fear and the crisis of the late medieval France, and the ideal society pursued in the process of the overcoming the fear.

 

 

2. Records of the Revolts

 

These revolts recruited the member from the various social status. Etienne Marcel, trying to control the monarchy through the Estate General, was the prévôt des marchands, leader of the Parisian upper bourgeoisie. But the Jacquerie, rising up near Paris in the same year as the revolt of Etienne Marcel, was the peasant revolt. The urban revolts in early 1380s were mainly led by bourgeoisie, except the upper bourgeoisie who had joined in the revolt of Etienne Marcel. The leader of the Cabochiens Revolt in 1413 was Simon Caboche, whose profession was butcher, cutting head of cow. So the leader's name implies that the leading group must be the lower class.

As leading groups were varied according to the revolts, so the leading group in the revolt varied according to the stages of a revolt. The more did the revolt progress, the less the upper bourgeois participated and the more the violence spread. At last, the upper bourgeoisie suppressed the lower class for the king.

We elaborate the progress as follows; the revolts of this time were deeply involved with the fiscal problem, especially the tax collection. So the bourgeoisie, who have some properties and burdened with the tax, must complain at start of the tumult. But with the violence accompanied, it changed into the revolt. In this stage, it is certain that they have lower social status than who play a role in the first steps. Then the remnants of society, who have nothing to lose by the violence, step forward, and lead the violence, the assault, the pillage, and the incendiaries. It is assumed that with the violence progress, the composition of the participants is changed.

 

In case of the revolt of Etienne Marcel, the leader Marcel fully controlled the situation from the strike of 1357 to the assassination of two generals, in February, 1358. In 1357, Marcel ordered "all the Parisian masters and the laborers (menestreux d'ouvrer) to go on strike and to be armed themselves", against the monetary revaluation of the Regent. In February 1358, also, when he ordered to murder the general in front of the Regent, he lead three thousands masters (gens de métiers) with arms. These two events implies that the Parisian bourgeoisie, attached to the "Merchant guild (Hanse des Marchands de l'eau)" played an important role in the revolt of Etienne Marcel, by giving the force of arms. After the assassination, Marcel gained the support from the Parisian bourgeoisie (bourgoiz et habitans) and the lower class of the inhabitants (menu people). But in June and July 1358, Marcel's influence was reduced gradually. The Jacquerie was beyond Marcel's influence, and, even in Paris, the citizen killed the English soldiers despite of Marcel's dissuasion. As the Marcel's leadership was base on the leader of the Parisian guild (Prévôt des Marchands), the more were the participants, the weaker his control over them.

According to the records of Harelle Revolt in Rouen in 1380s, "the lower people (menu commun) rose against the upper class (bourgoiz et gens d'estat), and the bad consulted (mal conseilliéz) flocked to the house of the bourgeois and pillaged and destroyed the house". It is noticeable that the bourgeois (bourgoiz), who had been the supporters of the revolt of Etienne Marcel, was the target of the attack this time.

 

To depict the participants, another record used the term as dignans, gens de poure estofle, merdaille, caïmants, gens sans aveu, etc. About Maillotins in Paris, the similar words were referred like « viri ex abjectiori plebe », « gens de bas estat », « viles statu et viliores moribus », « viri ex abjectiori plebe », « ignobliles », « houliers et mauvaiz garnement », « pillars et coquins ». For example, Gervaise de Grenges, carpenter from Saint-Quentin, was accused of the participation in "the uprising of lower class (assemblee et commocion du menu commun)" and was sentenced to 3 month in prison and 2 years in exile.

The revolts in 1410s were also recorded in similar terms. The contemporary regarded the Cabochiens Revolt as the evil conduct by « quidam turbati capitis viri, ex ignobilibus proavis »,  « plebe humili », « abjectissimorum virorum », « gens de petit estat et de petite condition », and « diabolique assemblée de innombrables menue gent ».

The contemporary documents always used the term "menu people" or the similar, to describe the leader and the participants, though the participants were varied in times. All the participants were always "humble and ignorant, and poor", irrespective of their profession. For example, Jean Fossart and Henri de Roye, who accused of the participation on the revolt of Amiens in early 1380s, were described as "men of little properties who don't know how to write (home de petite chevance, et qui ne sçavoit lire n'escripre)." But it is not likely that Henri de Roye could be illiterate, because he was a representative of the guild (bannière) and charged a treasurer of municipality, to which a man of literate could be appointed in general. So the term "illiterate" was simply used as a stereotypical phrase to depict the rebels.

Similarly, it was king or prince who save the society from the violence and recover the peace. The revolts gave rise to the excessive violence that could create the feeling of unease, and might damage the economic activities. At this point, the moderate voices won more and more support, and, at last, the king and the prince repaired the situation. In a word, the king, or the prince, represented the peace and order, tolerance

 

In sum, according to the chronicles, we cannot portrait the lower class, or menu people. The term "menu people" was used to describe simply the man who participated in the revolt. The king, on the counterpart of the menu people, usually represented the peace and the tolerance. As a result, the medieval sources and documents tell us the story of the revolt, but, in some aspect, they only reflect the moral value of the writer, and used the stereotypical terms. Thus, another way is needed to identify the participants.

 

 

3. Profession

 

It is possible to assume that the participants work together in similar professions. It is well-known that the Cabochien Revolts were led by the butchers. Not only have the statements in the chronicles, but also the letters of remission told us the profession of the participants.

 

<Table 1> is the list of the participants in the revolt of Etienne Marcel, mainly based on the letters of remission. It shows that the main supporters were elites and upper bourgeoisie. But as mentioned above, Etienne Marcel drew the supports from the lower class, expressed in "menu people" or "bourgeois et habitants", though the expression is obscure.

 

<Table 2> is also the list of the participants in the revolts of early 1380s. It shows that the main participants were the small merchants and the small craftsmen. But their professions show extreme diversity. They were neither rich, nor poor. As B. Geremek said, they did not compose of the a-social or anti-social elements. A member joining a preparatory meeting for the uprising in 1380s, gave a testimony as follows: "An unmarried person and the man who have not properties in Paris cannot be our member." It shows that they were not the marginals.

 

<Table 3> classifies the participants according to the social status. "Messire", calling knight or seigneur, and "Maistre", title referring high clergy and official, were about 40. Only the profession was recorded in 40 cases. And Others without any notice were 60. But considering medieval writing practice that the title was always added, if possible, the last group without any notice might be the same status as the second group. So the participants in the Cabochien Revolt were composed of various professions.

From three tables above, it is concluded that the participants in the revolts in the late medieval period were recruited from extremely diverse professions.

 

 

 

4. Psychology of Revolts

 

Now, we examine the participants from the psychological point of view.

In general, the fear and the complaints burst out due to heavy tax and the abuse, but the financial and the economic elements was not the only cause. For the tax payer, it is important that the tax is imposed properly and collected correctly. They were less concerned about whether it is heavy or not. Moreover, tax payers, who were not accustomed to the calculation in medieval period, did not complain after calculating the tax increase. So the injustice and the abuse was the trigger for the revolts. For example, in 1356 after the defeat of Poitiers, the complaints of the French third estate, which did his duty, that is paying the tax, concentrated on the fact that the noble did not his duty, fighting.

The revolts start in the form of mere complaints, accidents, or dispute. The manifestation of the complaints did not escalate directly to the revolts. People in the market or the place whispered the heavy tax and the abuse, exchanged their problems, and identified their grievances. When the occasion offers, the revolt starts: the shout and quarrel lead the mere complaints to the disorder or tumult, and when the violence added to this situation, disorder rise up to the revolt, and follows the extension of their social and geographical range.

In sum, the revolt starts as an occasional accident, that the fear or complaints in everyday life are expressed in the violent way. The complaint, fear and unrest might be spread among all the people. People shared the collective memory of the heavy tax and the abuse. So the revolt is the battle of memory. Some people shared the memory of complaint and fear, and exclude the other people who don't share the common memory.

 

As for the late medieval period, the fear of the absence of king from 1356 and the social unrest due to the war or the pillage were widely spread throughout the northern France. These psychological factors invoke the revolts frequently. It is after the defeat of Poitiers that the revolt of Parisian bourgeoisie in 1358 and the Jacquerie broke out. The captivity of the King, John the Good, causes political instability.

In 1357, Marcel ordered the strike to the entire master, when the regent, future Charles V, decided the monetary devaluation. Considering that the monetary devaluation and revaluation were frequently decided by turns in the first half of the fourteenth century, the devaluation in 1357 could be expected. So the armament of Parisian bourgeoisie ordered by Etienne Marcel, was triggered by the monetary change, but deeply based on the discontents after the defeat of the battle of Poitiers.

The Jacquerie starts mere accident that the inhabitants in St-Leu d'Esserent killed nine knights. But the violence spread rapidly in entire Picardy. The heavy tax was the main cause of the Jacquerie,  behind which lie the fear and the social unrest.

The Harelle Revolt and the Maillotins Revolt in the early 1380s also broke out at the time when the authority was not established after the Charles V died. And the Cabochiens rebelled when "the conflict of the Uncles" between the Armagnac and the Bourgogne was aggravated by the mental trouble of Charles VII. Briefly, the absence of the royal authority inspired the social unrest that constituted the background of the revolts

The pillage of the mercenaries and soldiers make social unrest. The war terrified the people. After a battle, the mercenaries, out of work, pillaged the rural village. The city was no exception. The fact that the city municipality rebuilt and repaired the city-wall proves the widespread terror of the war and the pillage in the late Middle Ages. So the war was an element of the fear.

The collective memory did not merely provide a main background of the revolts, but played an important role in recovery from the confusion. When the violence of the revolts culminated, people wanted someone who got rid of the social unrest and re-established the peace. The king dispatched the officials with army to a city and suppressed the revolts with cruelty. The king never presented himself in suppressing the revolts. The rumor, reporting the cruelty, circulated in the region. And then the upper bourgeoisie of other cities restored order by themselves. The king needed only to wait for a while.

The revolt of Rouen in 1382 shows vividly this process. The citizen of Rouen rose up after the Parisian revolt in 1382. But the ruthless suppression of the Parisians terrified the citizen of Rouen. The king did not go to Rouen immediately. The leaders of the Rouen revolt were decapitated and other leading participants were imprisoned. It is not the absence of the royal authority, but the royal authority itself, that terrified the people. At that moment when the citizen of Rouen, longing for the peace, was under the extreme strain, the king entered into Rouen with trampling the gate of Rouen fortress. It symbolized the cancel of the Rouen Commune. The citizen welcomed the king and cried out "Noel, Vive le Roi". The king's entrance cleared up the fear of the people.

To sum up, the main background of the revolts was the fear and the social unrest, coming from the absence of the royal authority, which would be cleared up by the re-establishment of the royal authority. So the participants, named "menu people", were who felt the fear from the political and social unrest. It is only the king who could re-establish the royal authority and recover the peace. So only the king could be the winner in the game of the revolts.

 

 

 

5. Conclusion

 

The revolts in the late medieval period start as a violent expression of the complaints base on the fear and the social unrest. On the first stage, the upper and mid-bourgeoisie led it. As the geographical and social range expands, the violence increases and the lower class, or 'menu people', largely participates in the revolt. The term "lower class" was no social meaning, but usually used to depict the people who act violently and make the community unstable. It is paradoxical that people rise up to escape from the fear and the social unrest, but their uprising causes the violence and the instability in turn.

The fear and the social unrest shared among the people cannot be resolved by the revolts and the violence. It is the sacred obligation of the king to keep the society in peace. The king represents the peace, the order, the mercy, the tolerance, and so on. The king is the only one who can solve the problem of the social unrest. So the revolts always conclude in the reinforcement of the royal authority. In a word, the revolts which start with the memory of the fear and the social unrest, eventually end up sharing the memory of the peace and the order.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1 The Participants in the Revolt of Etienne Marcel in 1358
(based on the letters of remission)

Name

Status

Etc

Sources

Alain de St-Benoist

Bourgeois

In prison

Chr. Jean(221)

Arnault Roussel

Bourgeois

In prison

Chr. Jean(221)

Bernard Coquatrix

Echevin(1355-56)

Charles Toussac

Mercier, Echevin(1355-58)

Decapitation

JJ 86, nos. 192(63), 195(64) ; JJ 90, no. 4(2) ;Delachenal, PJ. 29 ; Chr. Jean(112, 210)

Colart de Courliègis

Bourgeois (Laon)

Murdered

A. Thierry, Essai(44)

Colart le Cauceteur

Avocat (Abbeville)

Decapitation

JJ 84, no. 771(383) ; JJ 89, no. 50(68) ;

Denis de La Fontaine

Fils de Etienne

Elies Jourdain

Bourgeois

In prison

Chr. Jean(221)

Et. de La Fontaine

Bourgeois

In prison

JJ 86, no. 278(92) ; JJ 90, no. 31(15) ;

Geoffroy le Flament

Drapier

JJ 86, no. 271 ; X 17, f. 77 ; Chr. Jean(246)

Gilles Caillart

Maître (Orlèans)

Decapitation

Delachenal, PJ. 29 ; Chr. Jean(211) ;

Gilles Marcel

Clerc

Murdered

JJ 86, nos. 186(61), 195(64), 295, 296

Girart Moret

Changeur

In prison

JJ 90, no. 21(13) ; Chr. Jean(220)

Guillaume Aimé

Bourgeois

JJ 90, nos. 369(188), 382(193) ; X 17, f. 77

Guillaume Gargouille

Orfèvre

JJ 86, no. 203(66)

Guillaume le Fèvre

Poissonnier

In prison

JJ 90, no. 20(12) ; Chr. Jean(221)

Guillaume Marcel

Changeur

Doc. nouv., nos. 6-7

Hennequin le Flament

Drapier

In prison

JJ 86, no. 196 ; Chr. Jean(221)

J. Giffart le Boiteux

Bourgeois

In prison

Chr. Jean(220)

Jacques de Mante

Bourgeois

In prison

Chr. Jean(221)

Jacques du Castel

Terrassier

In prison

JJ 90, no. 30(15) ; Chr. Jean(221)

Jacques le Flament

Drapier

In prison

JJ 86, no. 243(116) ; Chron. Jean(221)

Jacquet le Flament

Trésorier

In prison

Chr. Jean(221)

Jean Bonvoisin

Bourgeois

Delachenal, PJ. 29

Jean de la Tour

Changeur

In prison

JJ 90, nos. 369(188), 382(193) ; X 17, f. 77

Jean de l'Isle

Orfèvre, Echevin(1357-58)

Murdered

JJ 86, no. 195(64) ; Chr. Jean(112, 209)

Jean de St-Aude

Avocat

In exile

Chr. Jean(245)

Jean de St-Benoît

Drapier

JJ 90, no. 1(1)

Jean dit le Boucher

Orfèvre

JJ 86, no. 536(194)

Jean Godart

Avocat (Châtelet)

Decapitation

Delachenal, PJ. 29 ; Chr. Jean(180, 211)

Jean Gosselin

Bourgeois

In prison

Chr. Jean(221)

Jean le Chanevacier

Bourgeois

JJ 90, no. 382(193)

Jean Maillart

Drapier

JJ 86, no. 151 ; JJ 96, no. 55

Jean Marcel

Bourgeois

In prison

JJ 86, no. 195(64)

Jean Moret

Changeur

In prison

JJ 90, no. 21(13) ; Chr. Jean(220)

Jean Pizdoue

Bourgeois

JJ 86, no. 292

Jean Porret

Frère de N. Porret

Murdered

Chr. Jean(209-10) ; Froissart, t. 5(338)

Jean Prévost

Bourgeois

Decapitation

Delachenal, PJ. 29 ; Chr. Jean(211)

Jean Restable

Bourgeois

In prison

JJ 90, no. 24(13) ; Chr. Jean(221)

Jean Vaillant

Monnayeur

Chr. Jean(182) ; Chr. normande(130)

Josseran de Mascon

Orfèvre, Echevin(1357-58)

Decapitation

JJ 86, no. 195(64) ; Delachenal, PJ. 29 ;

Martin Pizdoue

Bourgeois

Decapitation

JJ 86, no, 549 ;

Nicolas Damiens

Changeur

In prison

JJ 86, no. 595

Nicolas le Flament

Drapier

In prison

JJ 86, no. 209 ; Doc. nouv., no. 6;

Nicolas Porret

Mercier

In prison

JJ 90, no. 23(13) ; Chr. Jean(220)

P. de la Courteneuve

Drapier

Chr. Jean(206-208)

Pasquet le Flament

Drapier

In prison

Chr. Jean(221)

Perrinet Marcel

Banniere

S. Luce, <La famille>(54)

Philippe des Essarts

Avocat

Philippe Giffart

Changeur, Echevin(1356-58)

Murdered

JJ 86, no. 195(64) ; Chr. Jean(209)

Pierre Basselin

Bourgeois

In prison

Chr. Jean(221)

Pierre Bourdon

Echevin(1355-57)

Chr. Jean(198, n. 4)

Pierre Chappelu

Orfèvre

Pierre de Puisieux

Avocat (Parlement)

Decapitation

Delachenal, PJ. 29 ; Chr. Jean(211)

Pierre des Barres

Orfèvre

Chr. Jean(246)

Pierre Gilles

Epicier

Decapitation

JJ 86, no. 286 ; X 1a 14, f. 309, 476 ; Delachenal, PJ. 29 ; Chr. Jean(181)

Pierre le Blond

Orfèvre

Decapitation

Chr. Jean(211) ; Delachenal, PJ. 29

R. de la Chambre

Bourgeois

In prison

Chr. Jean(221)

Robert Marcel

Bourgeois

Simon le Paonnier

Bourgeois

Murdered

Chr. Jean(209)

Thomas de Ladit

Chancelier

Murdered

Delachenal, PJ. 29 ; Chr. Jean(215-16)

Vincent de Valricher

Bourgeois (Rouen)

In exile

Chr. Jean(246)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2 The Participants in the Revolts in 1380s

Name

Profession

Place

Sources

Pierre Peignart

1380 11, Senlis

JJ 118, no. 131, f. 69 v

Jehan de Losier

cousturier

1380 11, Paris

JJ 118, no. 260, f. 139 v

Guillaume le Maire

varlet changeur

1380 11, Paris

JJ 118, no. 274, f. 147

Gervaise de Grenges

charpentier

1380 10, St-Quentin

JJ 119, no. 35, f. 27

Jehan Loutrel

varlet

1380 11, Compiegne

JJ 119, no. 92, f. 63 v

Jehan Dailly

1380 11, Compiegne

JJ 119, no. 334, f. 202

Gile Largent

maistre d'oeuvre

1380 10, St-Quentin

JJ 119, no. 347, f. 208 v

Mahiet de Mansseaux

varlet et serviteur

1380 11, Compiegne

JJ 119, no. 357, f. 213

Jehan Labbé dit Galois

veneur et serviteur

1381 12, Noyon

JJ 120, no. 46, f. 29

Jehan du Pont

clerc

1382 2, Rouen

JJ 120, no. 225, f. 112

Henri Auquetin

petit marchand

1382 3 4, Falaise

JJ 120, no. 244, f. 121 v

Pierre Guillos

courroier

1382 2, Rouen

JJ 120, no. 278, f. 137 v

Gilles Boussart

laboureur de bras

1382 3, Paris

JJ 120, no. 353, f. 171

Pierre le Feure

1383 2, Rouen

JJ 120, no. 361, f. 175 v

Ymbert de Roussillon

mareschal

1382 Carême, Lyon

JJ 121, no. 257, f. 153 v

Jehan Jourdain

boulanger

1382-83, Amiens

JJ 122, no. 12, f. 11

Nicolas des Portes, Adam Roquete, Marie et Jaquot Thévenon

clercs

1383 1, St Florent

JJ 122, no. 78, f. 44

Jacques Chabre, Simon de Normende, Thibaut Jolys, Thomas de Calonne

attornez

1382 10, Senlis

JJ 122, no. 100, f. 51

Freminet Godard

pionnier

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 110, f. 55

Bourgeois et habitants (Rouen)

1382 2, Rouen

JJ 122, no. 114, f. 56 v

Jehan de la Carrière

drapier

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 147, f. 74 v

Jehan de Junelet dit Blarel

cordonnier

1382 3, Amiens

JJ 122, no. 182, f. 92

Habitants (Mantes)

1380 11 15, Mantes

JJ 122, no. 192, f. 96 v

Jehan Bernard

marchand

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 201, f. 100

Guillaume le Vies-Wadier

1382, Tournais

JJ 122, no. 202, f. 100

Colin Brun

drapier et bourgeois

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 217, f. 108

Jean Polet

pourpointier, doubletier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 122, no. 223, f. 110

Jehan du Moutiers

baudrieur

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 233, f. 117 v

Jehan de Vaurichier

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 268, f. 133 v

Guillaume Mauvoisin

1380 11 15, Mantes

JJ 122, no. 271, f. 135

Bernart Lespecier

1382, Tournais

JJ 122, no. 274, f. 136

Jehan de Romilly

maistre

1382 10, Paris

JJ 122, no. 278, f. 138

Colin Boutier

1382 11, Rouen

JJ 122, no. 279, f. 138

Oudard le Perrier

1380, Paris

JJ 122, no. 280, f. 138 v

Robin Arragon

couturier

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 318, f. 156 v

Le Gotte

drapier

1382, Tournais

JJ 122, no. 330, f. 161 v

Raoulin le Fevre

tavernier

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 334, f. 162 v

Petro le Gablier

1382, Caen

JJ 122, no. 350, f. 169 v

Richard du Val

potier d'étain

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 359, f. 173

Guillaume Herice

vendeur de vins

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 361, f. 174

Guillaume Langlois

chaudronnier

1382, Paris

JJ 122, no. 368, f. 176 v

Gilles Labat

1382 3-5, Paris

JJ 123, no. 14, f. 10 v

Gilet Chasteau

1382 3, Orlèans

JJ 123, no. 26, f. 15

Bourgeois et habitants (Caen)

1380-82, Caen

JJ 123, no. 51, f. 29

Bourgeois et habitants (Rouen)

1382 8 1, Rouen

JJ 123, no. 56, f. 31 v

Jehan le Mariot dit de Frae

1382 3, Reims

JJ 123, no. 64, f. 35

Guillaume Chevalier

mestier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 123, no. 71, f. 38 v

Maire et Echevin de Tournais

1382, Tournais

JJ 123, no. 81, f. 46

Jehan Filleul

notaire

1382 10, Paris

JJ 123, no. 83, f. 46 v

Bourgeois et habitants (Laon)

1382 Laon

JJ 123, no. 85, f. 47

Habitants (Caen)

1382, Caen

JJ 123, no. 97, f. 52 v

Henri de Roye

compteur

1382, Amiens

JJ 123, no. 117, f. 63 v

Jehan le Grant dit Saunier

saunier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 123, no. 120, f. 64 v

Jehan de Poitiers

valet

1382, Paris

JJ 123, no. 146, f. 77 v

Jean Garin

faiseur de cordes

1382, Caen

JJ 123, no. 150, f. 79 v

Martin Ploucy

tisserand

1382, Falaise

JJ 123, no. 157, f. 82

Jean de Sepmons

maréchal

1382 3, Paris

JJ 123, no. 159, f. 83

Gilet de Gant dit Bridoullet

clerc non marié

1382 3, Paris

JJ 123, no. 190, f. 97

Habitants (Mantes)

1380 11 15, Mantes

JJ 123, no. 192, f. 93

Adam Pellerin

ouvrier d'imagerie d'or et d'argent

1382 3, Paris

JJ 123, no. 210, f. 105 v

Perrin Louviers

vallet mereschal

1382 3, Caen

JJ 123, no. 224, f. 112

Liévin de Glistrelle et Habitants (Tournais)

1382 11, Tournais

JJ 123, no. 226, f. 113

Jehan de Louvres

varlet orfèvre

1382 3-10, Paris

JJ 123, no. 235, f. 119

Jean Roillard

tisserand

1380, Sens

JJ 123, no. 256, f. 127 v

Jehan le Sucillié

varlet ou enseigneur

1383 10, Paris

JJ 123, no. 285, f. 145

Nicaise Preudhomme

cervoisier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 124, no. 3, f. 7

Pierre Blondel

1382 10, Paris

JJ 124, no. 8, f. 9

Etienne Thorel

boucher

1382, Orlèans

JJ 124, no. 19, f. 15

Jehan du Chellier

varlet

1383 4, Caen

JJ 124, no. 59, f. 38 v

Willemot Blanchart dit Labretes

1382, Caen

JJ 124, no. 70, f. 43

Richard Langlois

chaudronnier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 124, no. 82, f. 49 v

Jehan Yvroin

1382, Paris

JJ 124, no. 107, f. 62

Regnier de Meaulx

clerc non mariez

1382 3, Senlis

JJ 124, no. 122, f. 69

Perrin de Montivilliers dit Maillard

1382, Paris

JJ 124, no. 130, f. 77 v

Jehannin de Houdant

1382 3, Paris

JJ 124, no. 134, f. 79 v

Thomas le Barillier dit Dangiers

tondeur de draps, sergent du guet

1382 3, Paris

JJ 124, no. 137, f. 80 v

Jehan Roche

boucher

1382, Sens

JJ 124, no. 180, f. 101 v

Pierret Coch

drapier

1382, Sens

JJ 124, no. 205, f. 116

Jehan Britaut

1382, Beauvais

JJ 124, no. 246, f. 154

Habitants (Laon)

1380 12, Laon

JJ 124, no. 295, f. 168 v

Jehannin le Feure

1382 3, Paris

JJ 124, no. 332, f. 188 v

Pierre Caquo

1382, Orlèans

JJ 124, no. 361, f. 204 v

Jehan Fernicle

1382 10, Paris

JJ 125, no. 19, f. 12 v

Abraham de Treno

1380 11, Compiegne

JJ 125, no. 59, f. 33 v

Pierre de la Mote

pâtissier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 125, no. 86, f. 51 v

Guillaume Lemède

1382, Orlèans

JJ 125, no. 200, f. 114

Guiot Chrestian de Macy

1382 3, Paris

JJ 125, no. 207, f. 119

Jacquet Talelot

1382, Caen

JJ 125, no. 244, f. 137 v

Philippot et Jaquet de la Porte, Vincenot Pepin, Jaquet Lambert, Pierre Germain

escuiers et gens notables

1380 11, Chartres

JJ 126, no. 49, f. 32

Colin Adam

coutelier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 126, no. 132, f. 87

Jehan Goude

sergent

1382, Paris

JJ 127, no. 65, f. 42

Jehan d'Estuelles, Jehan Bretrix

1380 11, Montereau

JJ 127, no. 105, f. 66

Raoul Claire dit Clincham

coutelier

1382, Caen

JJ 128, no. 45, f. 25

Michel Rassigot

valet de triperie

1382 3, Paris

JJ 128, no. 152, f. 86 v

Guiot Manglout

pelletier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 128, no. 235, f. 135

Guillaume Cabot

cordonnier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 128, no. 256, f. 146

Jehan Faussart

Mayeur de bannieres

1382 3-4, Amiens

JJ 128, no. 287, f. 162 v

Pierre de Mennecourt

1382, Paris

JJ 129, no. 251, f. 150

Jean de Mons

cellier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 131, no. 2, f. 2

Jean le Conte dit de Preel

vendeur de vinaigre

1382 3, Paris

JJ 131, no. 48, f. 27 v

Colin Piques

1382 3, Paris

JJ 131, no. 122, f. 75

Jean Fromage

changeur

1382 3, Paris

JJ 131, no. 133, f. 81

Colas Pavillon

couturier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 132, no. 67, f. 38 v

Maciot Testart

aumussier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 132, no. 82, f. 45 v

Jehan Neque

homme de mestier

1382 3, Paris

JJ 133, no. 189, f. 108 v

Laurens de la Grève

1382 10, Paris

JJ 135, no. 8, f. 5

Guiot de Troies

1382 3, Paris

JJ 135, no. 152, f. 86 v

Philippot du Val

chandelier en suif

1382 3, Paris

JJ 135, no. 226, f. 123

Jaquot de Bauville

aumussier

1380-82, Paris

JJ 135, no. 291, f. 156

Perrin Hure

graveur de sceaux

1382 3-10, Paris

JJ 136, no. 3, f. 1 v

Jacquet de Montpele

1382 10, Paris

JJ 136, no. 35, f. 18

Gassot Mauparlier

tondeur de draps

1382 3, Paris

JJ 136, no. 192, f. 103 v

Jacot Maucorps

ménestrel

1382 3, Paris

JJ 136, no. 220, f. 122

Philippe Mélite

valet pelletier

1380-83, Paris

JJ 142, no. 64, f. 38

Dimanche Cruchet

formier

1382 10, Paris

JJ 146, no. 71, f. 31 v

Philippotte Mahaudine

1380 11, Paris

JJ 147, no. 236, f. 108

Remondin le Fessu

varlet brodeur

1382 3, Paris

JJ 148, no. 70, f. 42

Habitants (Sens)

1381 1, Sens

X 1a 1471, f. 443

Jehan Soulas

1382, Paris

X 1a 1472, f. 44 v

Etienne Bièvre dit le Hong

tondeur de draps

1382 3, Paris

X 2a 10, f. 154 v

Jehan d'Epinay, Jehan le Boucher, Colin le Boucher, Jehan Bouquet, Robert du Moulin, Robert Loret, Jehan du Fay

1382, Rouen

Ms. fr. 26018, no. 159

Robert Maire

1382 8, Rouen

Ms. fr. 26019, no. 409

Tisserands et demourans (Vernay)

1382, Vernay

Ms. fr. 26019, no. 410

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3 Table 1 The Participants in the Revolt of Cabochien in 1413
(base on the letters of remission and the chronicles)

1) "Messire" (9)

Léon(Elyon) de Jacqueville (Knight). Robert(Robinet) de Mailly (Knight).
Charles de Raucourt, dit de Lens  (Knight). Philippe de Poitiers  (Knight).
Guischard Daulphin (Seigneur of Rambures). De la Viefville. Charles de Savoisy (Knight).
Jean de Courcelles (Seigneur). Anthoine de Craon (Seigneur)

2) "Maistre" (28)

Jean de Troyes (mire juré, échevin). Henri de Troyes (Son of J. de Troyes).

Eustache de Laistre (Chambre des Comptes). Guillaume Barraut (Docteur). Pierre Cauchon (Bishop). Jean Rapiout (Advocat). Jean Tillart (Procureur). Félix du Bois, dit Elie. Laurens Callot.
Thomas le Sueur (
Prévôt). Jacques le Sueur. Margeurite la Boitelle. Denys de Bausmes.
Toussaint Bayart. Pierre Berbe. Jean Bon. Jehan Bout. Jacques Cadot. Baudet des Bordes.
Marguerite (Wife of Me. Guillaume des Bordes). Nicolas du Quesnoy. Dominique François.
Pierre Lombart. Pierre Miote. Jehan Nepveu. Nicolas de St-Ilier(Hilaire). Hugues de Verdun. Guillaume Vignier.

3) Merchant, Craftsman, etc. (40)

Thomas Legois (boucher). Jehan Legois (boucher). Guillaume Legois (boucher).
Garnot(Garnier) de St-Yon (boucher). Jehan de St-Yon (boucher). Denisot de St-Yon (boucher).
Simon le Coustellier dit Caboche (escorcheur). Denisot de Chaumont (escorcheur).
Jehan de Rouen (frippier). Jehan Malaert(Maillart) (frippier). André Roussel (bourgeois).
Jean Maille (Orf
èvre). Jehan Guérin (Changeur). Philippot Orlart (Changeur).
Colin Genre (Tavernier). Jehan le Fevre (rotisseur). Jean Boiève (Poissonnier).
Thomas Garnier (Poissonnier). Robin Gouppil (pasticier). Simonnet Baivart (pasticier).
François l'Orfevre (chaussetier). Jehan Bourdon du Rousselet (battelier). Jehan le Gras (costurier).
Jaquet du Bois (cirier). un Regnault (estuveur). un Errault (escolier). Péruchon,
Honnotin de Monceaulx, Guillebin (varlès). Robin, Jaquet, Denisot (valez). Les Cailles.
Jehan Front de Buef (sergent à verge). Jehanin (clerc). Eustache. Perrin (varlet).
Laurencin (serviteur). Thibault (serviteur)

4) Unidentified (60)

Guillaume Baillet, Jehan de Balery, Simon Bausart, Michiel Berangier, Jehan Bertran,
Mahiet Boileaue, Guillaume Bourdin, Jehan Boyvin, Jehan de Bretueil, Jehan Chausse,
Jacques de Choisy, Martin de Coulommiers, Jaquet de Croquelet, Jehan du Bois au Ren,
Jehan du Boisauron, David du Conseil, Jehan Errault, Antoine de Forest dit des Joyaulx,
Guillaume Gente, Fréminot de Gourguichon, Guillaume Goute, Cointinet du Harloy,
Guillaume Hurtevant, Philippe Jossequin, Jacques Lamban, Colin de la Vallée, Vincent le Barruyer,
Jehan le Clerc dit Petit Prevost, Jehan le Coq, Jehan le Fort, Jaquet le Maçon, Denisot le Maire,
Colin le Mauvais, Guillemin le Provendier, Jehan Lignage, Jehan de Lombert dit Hanoz,
Raoulin de Macy, Jehan Mainfroy, Thierry Mainfroy, Jehan de Malatrait, Jehan de Mante,
Guillaume Martin, Estienne Moreau, Jehan Moustre dit Chéron, Martin de Neauville, Jehan Parent,
Jehan Paste, Jehan Paumier, Jehan Petit, Jehan de Poligny dit Chappelain(ou dit Chastelain),
Ligier Polin, Huguet Potier, Raoulin Puchin, Jehan Pymorin, Thomas Quillet, Simmonet Robillart, Jacques de Rouen, Jacques de St-Laurent, Jacques de Sarcy, Jehan de Tours.